تعلم قواعد الحروف الساكنة فى اللغة الانجليزية silent letters in english rules

تعلم قواعد الحروف الساكنة فى اللغة الانجليزية silent letters in english rules
    تعلم قواعد الحروف الساكنة فى اللغة الانجليزية silent letters in english rules
    تعلم الحروف الساكنة فى اللغة الانجليزية

    silent letters in english 



    Silent B


    silent b letter


    Rule 1: B is not pronounced after M at the end of a word.

    Examples: limb, crumb, dumb, comb, bomb, thumb, climb, tomb

    Rule 2: B is usually not pronounced before T at the end of a root word.**

    Examples: debt, doubt, debtor, doubtful, subtle, subtleness


    Silent C


    silent letter C


    Rule 1: C is not pronounced in the combination SC.

    Examples: Muscle, scissors, ascent, miscellaneous, fascinate, scenario  

    Exceptions: Sclera, asclepiad, sclerosis, muscovado, sceptic

    Rule 2: C is usually redundant before the letters K or Q.

    Examples: Acquaintance, acknowledge, acquiesce, acquit



    Silent D


    silent letter D


    Rule 1: D is not pronounced in the following common words:

    Handkerchief, Wednesday, sandwich, handsome

    Rule 2: D is also not pronounced in the combination DG.

    Examples: Pledge, dodge, grudge, hedge


    Silent E

    silent letter E

    Rule: E is not pronounced at the end of words, but instead elongates the sound of the vowel before it.

    Examples: Hope, drive, gave, write, site, grave, bite, hide

    Exceptions: Giraffe, brunette, cassette, gazelle (You may be able to spot a pattern in these words; they have similar combinations in the last syllable. This shows that the exceptions are generally words with unusual stress on the final syllable – but not always! One example would be the word ‘minute’ as in the time-measuring unit.)

    Silent G

    silent letter G

    Rule: G is not often not pronounced when it comes before N.

    Examples: Champagne, foreign, sign, feign, foreign, design, align, cognac

    Exceptions: Magnet, igneous, cognitive, signature


    Silent GH


    silent letter gh

    Rule 1: GH is not pronounced when it comes after a vowel.

    Examples: Thought, drought, through, thorough, borough, daughter, light, might, sigh, right, fight, weigh, weight

    Exceptions: Doghouse, foghorn, bighead (As you can see, the exceptions are generally compound words i.e. words that have been formed by combining two complete words)

    Rule 2: GH is sometimes pronounced like F.

    Examples: rough, tough, laugh, enough, cough, clough, draught

    Silent H


    silent letter H

    Rule 1: H is not pronounced when it comes after W (n.b. some speakers whisper the H before the W).

    Examples: what, when, where, whether, why

    Rule 2: H is not pronounced at the beginning of many words (remember to use the article “an” with unvoiced H).

    Examples: hour, honest, honour, heir

    Exceptions: hill, history, height, happy, hereditary (Plus most other words beginning with H that are NOT of French origin – and remember to use the article “a” with voiced H)

    Rule 3: H is often not pronounced when it comes after C, G or R.

    Examples: choir, chorus, ghastly, ghoul, aghast, echo, rhinocerous, rhythm



    Silent K


    silent letter K
    Rule: K is not pronounced when it comes before N at the beginning of a word.

    Examples: knife, knee, know, knock, knowledge, knead


    Silent L


    silent letter L

    Rule: L is not pronounced after the vowels A, O and U.

    Examples: calm, half, talk, walk, would, should, could, calf, salmon, yolk, chalk, folk, balm

    Exceptions: Halo, bulk, sulk, hold, sold, fold, mould


    Silent N


    silent letter N
    Rule: N is not pronounced when it comes after M at the end of a word.

    Examples: Autumn, hymn, column, solemn


    Silent P


    silent letter P
    Rule: P is not pronounced at the beginning of many words using the combinations PS, PT and PN.

    Psychiatrist, pneumonia, pneumatic, psychotherapy, psychotic, psychologist, pseudonym, Pterodactyl


    Silent PH


    Rule: PH is sometimes pronounced like F.

    Examples: telephone, paragraph, alphabet, epiphany, sophomore

    Silent S

    silent letter S

    Rule: S is not pronounced before L in the following words:

    Island, isle, aisle, islet



     Silent T


    silent letter T
    Rule: T is not pronounced in these common words:

    Castle, Christmas, fasten, listen, often, whistle, thistle, bustle, hasten, soften, rapport, gourmet, ballet



     Silent U


    silent letter U
    Rule: U is not pronounced when it comes after G and before a vowel.

    Examples: guess, guidance, guitar, guest, guild, guard

    Silent W


    silent letter W

    Rule 1: W is not pronounced at the beginning of a word when it is before the letter R.

    Examples: wrap, write, wrong, wring, wreck, wrestle, wrap, wrist

    Rule 2: W is not pronounced in the following words:

    Who, whose, whom, whole, whoever, answer, sword, two


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